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Delhi Sustainable Development Summit 2002
Ensuring sustainable livelihoods:

challenges for governments, corporates, and civil society at Rio+10
8 - 11 February 2002, New Delhi

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8 Feb. 2002 9 Feb. 2002 10 Feb. 2002 11 Feb. 2002
                                   
    11 February 2002: Plenary session 8
          
  
   Climate change and sustainable energy
        
                                 
Chairperson

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Mr Antonio V del Rosario
President - Energy Development & Utilization Foundation, Inc. (EDUFI), The Philippines

 

          
Speaker

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Ms Preety Bhandari
Associate Director, Policy Analysis Division, TERI

 

                              
Speaker

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Mr Michael Zammit Cutajar
Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat, Germany

"We have to think of how to engage developing countries in policies and measures for emissions limitations."

 

           
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Mr Elliot Diringer
Director, International Strategies, Pew Centre on Global Climate Change, USA

"The major way forward should be the launch of new efforts to make clean energy sources available in developing countries."

 

     

           
Speaker

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Dr Hoesung Lee
President, Council on Energy and Environment, Korea

"To enhance the effectiveness of mitigating options, it is necessary to reduce implementation costs through coordinated actions among nations, sectors and through multilateral agreement."

 

 

                   
Speaker

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Mr Andrei Marcu
Executive Director, The International Emissions Trading Association, Geneva

"Markets do not create reductions (of GHG's) but provide signals for the allocation of resources."

 

 

                    
Speaker

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Prof. Mohan Munasinghe
Distinguished Visiting Professor of Environmental Management, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

 


 

           
Speaker
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Dr Wang Shourong
Deputy Director, Institute of Strategic Development and Overall Planning China Meteorological Administration


 

                                                     
Session summary
Sustainable energy must fulfil the objectives of (1) energy accessibility (one-third of humanity cannot access modern energy services); (2) energy availability (security, adequacy, and quality of delivered energy) and (3) energy acceptability (reflecting environmental goals and public attitudes).

The UNFCCC addresses the equity issue through ‘common but differentiated responsibility’. Per capita energy consumption and GHG emissions of developing countries are far lower than that of the industralized world. In a convergence of emissions at a sustainable level, developing countries can increase emissions to a safe limit while developed ones reduce to the same level.

Marrakesh finalized operational rules for flexible mechanisms and alleviated market uncertainty for carbon trading. With the US withdrawing, new sources of uncertainty emerged and the Protocol was diluted. Concessions given to encourage ratification include increased caps in forest management and no quantifiable caps for ‘offshore’ Kyoto mechanisms.

Beyond Marrakesh, every country including the US must contribute to the mitigation process. The ultimate level for stabilizing GHG concentration must be agreed upon and medium-term targets set. National policies must appreciate and integrate the linkages between climate change and sustainable development.

The US is not (and is unlikely to be in the near future) part of the Protocol but with growing public and business support, it is recognizing and accepting its responsibilities as the world’s largest GHG polluter. The US withdrawal from Kyoto may harm multinationals as they will miss important market opportunities and not be able to manage their emissions reductions cost-effectively. Domestic and international regimes must be compatible to enhance prospects for ultimate convergence.

It is time for action as the IPCC projects a 1.4 C to 5.8 C rise in world temperatures, resulting in changes in precipitation patterns, frequency and intensity of climate extremes, and sea-level rise, further adversely affecting yields of staple crops (rice, soybean), run-offs in major river basins, and glacier movements.

The higher vulnerability of developing countries to such impacts may be reduced through faster growth, adaptation, and mitigation. To promote carbon trading, business regimes require clarity, flexibility, and low transaction costs, and capacity building. Projects should be uniformly distributed among developing countries. The high transaction costs and political risks hindering larger projects like rural electrification can be overcome through effective public–private partnerships.