About DSDS
    - 22 Jan. 2007
    - 23 Jan. 2007
    - 24 Jan. 2007
Summit bulletin
Special Events
Steering Committee

23 January 2007 (Tuesday)
Summit bulletin
Keynote Address: The Global Energy Challenge: Technology Scenarios for a Sustainable Future
Keynote Address: Perspectives on climate change
Energy for Sustainable Development
Keynote addresses
   -Atmospheric chemistry for climate in the Anthropocene
   -Environmental threats and international governance on environmental matters
Sustainable use of natural resources
Sustainable Development Technologies for the poor
Keynote Address: Evolution of Environmental Markets: A Practitioner's View of the Past, Present and Path Forward
Keynote Address: The Global Energy Challenge: Technology Scenarios for a Sustainable Future

Day 2 of DSDS 2007 began with a keynote address by Mr Claude Mandil, Executive Director, IEA (International Energy Agency), France. Titled The Global Energy Challenge: technology scenarios for a sustainable future, his speech began with the persuasive contention that the three Es (energy security, environment protection, and economic growth) are inviolable pillars of sustainability. The growth pattern, however, would lead to significant increase in emissions and result in high import dependencies for all major consumers. These two factors, coupled with the ever-growing threat of climate change, would hurt long-term economic growth.



Mr Mandil’s speech then focused on comparing and contrasting future emission scenarios. To understand the potential emission reductions new technology options can help achieve, the IEA has created scenarios till 2050, which is the realistic point at which newer technologies can make a significant difference to emission trends. Mr Mandil shared these scenarios and pointed out that optimal deployment of clean technologies already available would help reverse global emission trends by 2050, but persisting with conventional technologies would exacerbate emissions to unmanageable levels.

The IEA reference scenarios highlight the fact that the world is on a completely unsustainable path—with a projected 85% of energy coming from fossil fuels in 2050. This would mean a steep increase in global emissions. But, if the world dedicates more resources, research, and commitment to new technologies to increase energy efficiency; introduces cost-effective renewables; and applies carbon capture and sequestration technology, emission levels in 2050 would be the same as they were in 2003. The choice before the world could not have been clearer—switch to newer, cleaner technologies now to ease the pressure on the planet’s climate, or continue with a business-as-usual mindset and be prepared for runaway global warming in less than 50 years.

 Session Panelists

Mr V Subramanian
Secretary, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India

Mr Claude Mandil
Executive Director, International Energy Agency, France

Keynote Address: Perspectives on climate change

Policy formulation with regard to climate change must follow the principles of equity and sustainable development, said Dr R K Pachauri, Director-General, TERI. Efforts should be directed towards enhancing social and natural capital. In addition, there is a need to manage natural resources carefully. For instance, in the case of climate change, the atmosphere is to be managed efficiently.
The Kyoto Protocol was identified as a mechanism that could facilitate technological breakthroughs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although the Protocol is not a perfect agreement, it is a major step forward. Clean Development Mechanism projects do hold hope. The Protocol has resulted in the initiation of a carbon market that shall expand in future. Several countries are worried about the costs of meeting the Protocol targets. However, IPCC analysis shows that the benefits outweigh the costs.

The impacts of global warming will be felt most by the developing countries. Therefore, there is a need to cope with the situation using traditional and modern knowledge. On the issue of technology transfer, UNFCCC clearly specifies that the incremental cost will be supplied by developing countries. While covering of incremental cost is essential, the overall life cycle cost should also be looked at.
The time has come for the global community to come up with win-win opportunities. The solution lies in integrating climate change into development thinking, and further connecting these to water issues.

 Session Panelists

Dr Nitin Desai
former Under Secretary General of the United Nations

Dr R K Pachauri
Director-General, TERI

Energy for Sustainable Development

It is now beyond doubt that the energy choices we make have a direct bearing on our efforts to attain sustainable development. Session 3 of DSDS 2007 saw focused discussions around making the right energy choices, and in a manner that leads to a decisive shift of development paradigms towards just and sustainable models. Speakers in the session agreed that the year 2006 has been a minor watershed in the context of energy use, with governments, business, scientists, and society making measurable efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels, increase awareness of the environmental complications arising from fossil fuel emissions, and promote new and renewable energy systems. However, the magnitude of the challenge facing the sustainable development movement can be gauged by the fact that such initiatives have barely scratched the surface of the problem. The fact remains that global energy demand is going to continue to increase, and fossil fuels will be the only widely available option to meet the increased demand. The challenge before the world community is to increase the basket of options available to a world hungry for more energy, and fill that basket with clean technologies and renewable sources of energy.

To achieve this, speakers suggested several strategies, central to which was the need to foster greater cohesion and collaboration between stakeholders. PPPs (public–private partnerships) have a key role to play in this context. The traditional template for PPP – an institutional arrangement between the private sector and governments – needs to be redefined and expanded to include civil society and local bodies. Governments, it was suggested, should make more concerted efforts to create an enabling environment for the blossoming of PPPs and the integration of energy, environment, and society. A clear regulatory framework, an incentive regime, and policy support were some of the mechanisms governments could consider.

Speakers also spoke about the need for greater international consensus on energy issues, especially the urgent issue of reducing the environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption. They noted that while developing nations must approach the energy–environment question within their broader development goals, it is important for developed countries to take a lead in this regard.

 Session Panelists
Dr Adnan A Shihab-Eldin
Former Acting Secretary General and Director of Research at OPEC as well as Advisor to Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Austria

Mr Jean-Paul Bouttes
Director, Prospective and International Relations, Electricite de France (EDF), France & CEO, Sherpa, France

Mr Pieter van Geel
Cabinet level, State Secretary, Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, The Netherlands

Dr Bindu N Lohani
Director General - Regional and Sustainable Development Department, Asian Development Bank

Mr Nick Mabey

Mr Vikram Singh Mehta
Chairman, Shell Group of Companies in India

Dr Lutz Mez
Executive Director - Environmental Policy Research Centre, University of Berlin, Germany

Ms Cornelia Richter
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Germany

Dr Leena Srivastava
Executive Director, TERI, New Delhi

Mr Patrick Verhagen
Senior Vice President, Holcim, Zurich

Keynote addresses

Atmospheric chemistry for climate in the Anthropocene

The focus of the address by Prof. Paul Crutzen, Director Emeritus, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany, was on the scientific aspects of climate change and its history, the challenges we face today, and the possible solutions. The issue of climate change needs to be broadened from the main theme of carbon dioxide emissions, to consider other ozone-depleting gases such as methane, water vapour, and nitrous oxides. Heightened human activity has changed atmospheric chemistry and, as a result, global temperature is rising. We need to ask ourselves the question: ‘what can we do?’

There is an urgent need to stabilize the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by reducing emissions by 60%. Although methane emissions have stabilized in the past five years, nitrous oxide emission is still a matter of concern. Chlorofluorocarbon reduction has been achieved, but due to its long lifetime, it will continue to linger in the atmosphere for at least 70 years. Solutions are available in the form of striving for energy efficiency; carbon capture and storage; using nuclear power and renewable energy; and so on. One option on offer is an experiment that involves releasing sulphur into the stratosphere (as in volcanic eruptions). Advanced models that enabled the creation of the exact atmospheric environment under controlled conditions were established. Thereafter, the model was used to investigate the effects under three different scenarios. In the first scenario, carbon dioxide concentration is doubled; in the second, sulphur is ejected; and in the third, both these situations occur simultaneously. The outcome showed that when both situations occurred, the climate nearly imitates actual conditions. Prof. Crutzen emphasized its importance in the present day.

Environmental threats and international governance on environmental matters

Alan Juppe, former Prime Minister of France and Mayor of Bordeaux, reiterated that the existing international framework is inadequate to meet the challenges of global environment. He emphasized that climate change was undermining development. It is likely to cause massive migration of populations termed as ‘climate change refugees’. An increasing number of extreme meteorological phenomena would also need attention. Food and water crises must be considered as security problems. The cost of inaction would be huge, and thus, collective and immediate action is necessary.

The planet warming to an average of 2 °C is not alarming. However, this minimum threshold demands a reduction in GHGs (greenhouse gases). France is aware of this, and hence, the French energy policy has set a target of reducing emissions by 75% by 2050. Alan Juppe wished that this target would become common for all industrialized counties including the US.

Juppe also called for better integration of policies in the poorer countries based on radical, rapid, and effective action to curb GHGs. He emphasized on the mainstreaming of environmental concerns and the insufficient support to developing countries.

Juppe concluded by saying that it was time to face responsibility and give the UN tools, means, and authority it needs by upgrading UNEP into a special agency for environment. He proposed setting up of UNEO (United Nations Environment Organization) with a strong coordination mandate. An umbrella organization, the UNEO would ensure policy and decision-making based on sound and reliable knowledge, headed by an executive director who would be the global face and voice of the environment.

 Session Panelists

Mr Pekka Plathan
Director General, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland

Atmospheric Chemistry for Climate in the Anthropocene
Nobel Laureate Prof. Paul Crutzen
Director Emeritus, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany

Environmental Threats and International Governance on Environmental Matters
HE Mr Alain Juppe
Former Prime Minister of France and Mayor of Bordeaux

Sustainable use of natural resources
Discussion in the session focused on various aspects of sustainability as they relate to natural resources—from academic, policy, donor, and industry viewpoints. Defining the 21st century as an era of ‘knowledge expansion’, the discussions emphasized the need to use the tools of science to build an issue-based approach to sustainability—one that can reliably predict the future and create a network of data and knowledge.

Multi-lateral perspectives on natural resources were also put forward in the session. These include valuation of ecosystem services, and development of mechanisms for payments for ecosystem services. The point was made that households who live near natural resources tend to better manage them, and meeting short-term needs of communities who depend on natural resources are thus as important as long-term sustainability goals.

Private sector initiatives to supply water, waste, and energy management services were stressed by speakers. Sustainable development, it was stated, can and should become an integral part of business functioning. In the same vein, the critical role of biotechnology was discussed, and its potential to make enormous contributions in meeting food, energy, and clean water needs was noted. Biotechnology can also help poor nations that cannot normally access expensive technology through agricultural innovations to satisfy their basic food and nutrition needs.

Panellists then commented on the relatively less discussed issue of governance. Government need to create more choices so that better decisions can be taken at the individual level. Speakers also made the key point that local governance institutions are normally more willing to pay for local development than national institutions, and the former could also act as engines of local innovation to resolve conflicts between local-level livelihood needs and countervailing macro-forces.

 Session Panelists

Mr Denis McDonough
Senior Fellow and Senior Adviser to Distinguished Senior Fellow Tom Daschle at the Center for American Progress, USA

Mr Yves Caban
Special Advisor to the Chairman, Executive Committee Secretary & Vice President - Sustainable Development, Veolia Environment, France

Mr Warren Evans
Director of Environment, The World Bank, USA

Prof. Michael von Hauff
University of Kaislerlautern, Germany

Prof. Peter Hennicke
President, Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Germany

Dr Ganesh M Kishore
Vice President, Science & Technology and Chief Biotechnology Officer, DuPont Research & Development, USA

Prof. Charles Kolstad
Department of Economics, University of California, USA

Ms Tiahoga Ruge Scheffer
Director-General, Centre for Education and Training for Sustainable Development, Mexico

Prof. Akimasa Sumi
Director, Transdisciplinary Initiative for Global Sustainability (TIGS) in Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science (IR3S) & Head of AGS Promotion Office, University of Tokyo, Japan

Sustainable Development Technologies for the poor

Environment and poverty were traditionally treated as two disconnected issues having few overlaps within the development paradigm. But increasingly, through focused developmental initiatives in the recent past, the gap between the two issues has reduced. In this session, the discussion shifted towards one of the key outcomes of the reducing disconnect between the environment and the poverty conundrums. This is the search for technologies for the poor that are not only affordable but also sustainable. It was stated that such technology should essentially fulfill 3 As: Affordability, Accessibility, and Appropriateness. In this context, speakers recommended framing technology-specific developmental programmes focusing on the vulnerability of the poor, and which draw upon traditional, indigenous knowledge for inspiration.

To address the affordability aspect of sustainable technologies, panelists suggested the creation of markets that involve the poor as actors or producers in the value chain. Speakers also called on governments to address the issue of absence of micro-enterprises for economic development for the poor in developing countries. Other subjects that were discussed in the session included international funding for research and development in global public goods, collaborative North–South research and South–South cooperation, and the need for stakeholders to work towards bringing about a change in mindsets.

 Session Panelists

Mr Raj Chengappa
Managing Editor, India Today, Delhi

Setting the theme
Ms Monique Barbut
CEO & Chairman, Global Environment Facility, USA

HE Ms Rejoice Mabudafhasi
Deputy Minister for Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South Africa

Dr Alok Adholeya
Director, Biotechnology and Management of Bioresources Division, TERI

Mr Francois Binder
Country Director, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, India

Ms JoAnne Disano
Director, Division for Sustainable Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, USA

Dr Arun Kumar
President- Business Initiatives, Development Alternatives, India

Ms Pearl Tiwari
Director, Ambuja Cement Foundation, India

Keynote Address: Evolution of Environmental Markets: A Practitioner's View of the Past, Present and Path Forward
Mr Richard Sandor’s address focused on devising market-based solutions to environmental problems such as rising GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Giving the example of the Chicago Climate Exchange – a voluntary emissions management and trading system – Mr Sandor explained how environment markets can be a force-multiplier in the fight to reduce GHG. The Chicago Climate Exchange market architecture aims to cut emissions by 6% from the baseline levels by 2010. The price discovery mechanism is driven by seasonality, temperature, commercial and industrial growth, and GDP growth, and is sensitive to political impacts.

Mr Sandor went on to suggest that India could now replicate the same process followed by the Chicago Climate Exchange, considering that the country’s 9% GDP growth is generating a lot of wealth. Some initiatives that need to be looked at to build an environmental market highlighted by Mr Sandor include regulation or private sector laws that create the enforcement of property rights, building underlying institutions to perform functions ranging from clearance, tax allowances, knowledge acquisition, and monitoring and verification.

 Session Panelists

Mr C. Dasgupta
Distinguished Fellow, TERI

Mr Richard Sandor
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, The Chicago Climate Exchange, USA